The answer to your first question is, no. The meaning between the two sentences remains the same. Japanese is flexible in terms of the order of structures in a sentence…to a point. You still need to know which ways you can organize the structures, of course. This is especially true with frequency words (MAINICHI, MAISHUU, MAITOSHI, etc) and quantity words (TAKUSAN, AMARI, TOKIDOKI, etc).
However, when arranging a word followed by the particle を, it is more natural to place said word right after the verb, even though you can also place it in front of the sentence with the verb at the end. For example, you can say the following sentence either way, but the most natural way is the second sentence:
1) 私はビ-ルを金曜日に飲みます。(WATASHI HA BIIRU WO KINYOUBI NI NOMIMASU).
2) 私は金曜日にビ-ルを飲みます。(WATASHI HA KINYOUBI NI BIIRU WO NOMIMASU).
Both mean “I will drink beer on Friday.” It’s just like in English, you can also say “On Friday, I will drink beer” and the meaning doesn’t change.
In spoken language, you’ll even hear it said this way: 金曜日にビ-ルを飲みます、私は。This is technically incorrect, but can be used if you’re emphasizing that YOU are doing said action. At this point you probably won’t be using 私 (WATASHI) nor ます (MASU FORM), but more like 俺 (ORE) and 飲む (NOMU). You might even hear particles being dropped in real world conversations with friends, but I digress.